学习英语作文

时间:2022-05-11 09:19:59 我要投稿

学习英语作文1


土木工程毕业设计文献综述范例

文献综述正文

毕业设计是土木工程专业学生毕业前的最后学习和综合训练的阶段,是知识深化、拓宽、教学的重要过程,是学生学习、研究和实践的全面总结,也是对学生综合素质与工程实践能力的全面检验,是实现本科培养目标的重要阶段。通过毕业设计,培养了综合分析和解决问题的能力、组织管理和社交能力,培养了独立工作的能力以及严谨、扎实的工作作风和事业心、责任感。为将来走上工作岗位,顺利完成所承担的建设任务奠定基础。

本项目为缙云县邮政生产用房,集商用、办公于一体的综合性建筑,采用钢筋混凝土框架结构体系,建筑结构的类别为二类,使用年限为50年,占地面积为3987m2,总建筑面积为3934m2,底层层高4.2m,标准层层高为3.4m。

多层及高层建筑的结构体系大致有混合结构体系、框架结构体系、剪力墙结构体系、筒体结构体系、巨型结构体系。混合结构的承重墙体随着建筑高度的增加而加厚,不仅耗费大量材料,也减少了使用面积。框架结构体系是由钢筋混凝土梁、柱节点及基础为主框架,加上楼板、填充墙、屋盖组成的结构形式。框架形成可灵活布置的建筑空间,使用较方便。但是随着建筑高度的增加,水平作用使得框架底部梁柱构件的弯矩和剪力显著增加,从而导致梁柱截面尺寸和配筋量增加,到一定程度,将给建筑平面布置和空间处理带来困难,影响建筑空间的正常使用,在材料用量和造价方面也趋于不合理,因此在使用上层数受到限制。正是因为如此原因,框架结构适用于办公楼、教学楼、商场、住宅等建筑。本设计的是多层建筑,建筑的高宽比H/B小于5,抗震设防烈度为6度,建筑高度19.5m,

框架结构住宅是指以钢筋混凝土浇捣成承重梁柱,再用预制的加气混凝土、膨胀珍珠岩、浮石、蛭石、陶烂等轻质板材隔墙分户装配成而的住宅。适合大规模工业化施工,效率较高,工程质量较好。 框架结构由梁柱构成,构件截面较小,因此框架结构的承载力和刚度都较低,它的受力特点类似于竖向悬臂剪切梁,楼层越高,水平位移越慢,高层框架在纵横两个方向都承受很大的水平力,这时,现浇楼面也作为梁共同工作的,装配整体式楼面的作用则不考虑,框架结构的墙体是填充墙,起围护和分隔作用,框架结构的特点是能为建筑提供灵活的使用空间,但抗震性能差。所以选用框架结构体系较为合理。

框架是由梁、柱构件通过节点连接形成的骨架结构。框架结构的特点是由梁、柱承受竖向和水平荷载,墙仅起维护作用,其整体性和抗震性均好于混合结构,且平面布置灵活,可提供较大的使用空间,也可构成丰富多变的立面造型。国外多用钢为框架材料,而国内主要为钢筋混凝土框架,因为钢筋混凝土结构有以下的一些优点:

第一:合理的利用了钢筋和混凝土两种材料的受力性能特点,可以形成强度较高、刚度较大的结构构件。这些构件在有些情况下可以用来代替钢构件,因而能够节约钢材,降低造价。

第二:耐久性和耐火性较好,维护费用低。

第三:可模性好,结构造型灵活,可以根据使用需要浇注成各种形状的结构。

第四:现浇钢筋混凝土结构的整体性好,可通过合理的设计,使之具有良好的延性,成为“延性框架”,在地震作用下,这种延性框架具有良好的抗震性能;同时它的防震性和防辐射性也好,亦适于用作防护结构。

第五:混凝土中占比例较大的砂、石材料便于就地取材。

因为钢筋混凝土具有这些特点,所以在建筑结构、地下结构、桥梁、隧道、铁路等土木工程中得到广泛应用。混凝土以成为当今世界上用量最大的建筑材料。但是,钢筋混凝土也存在一些缺点,如自重过大,抗裂性能较差,隔热隔声性能不好,浇注混凝土时需要模板和支撑,户外施工受到季节条件限制,补强修复比较困难。这些缺点在一定程度上限制了钢筋混凝土的应用范围。随着科学技术的发展,钢筋混凝土的这些缺点正在逐步的得到克服和改善。

钢筋混凝土多层框架结构作为一种常用的结构形式, 具有如下优点:

(1) 建筑平面布置灵活,分割方便。

(2) 整体性、抗震性能好。

(3) 传力路线明确。

(4) 墙体采用轻质填充材料时,结构自重小。

(5) 承重构件与围护构件有明确分工。

毕业设计是对四年专业知识的一次综合应用、扩充和深化,也是对我们理论运用于实际设计的一次锻炼。通过毕业设计,不仅可以温习以前在课堂上学习的专业知识,同时也将学习和体会到建筑结构设计的基本技能和思想。

“缙云县邮政生产用房结构设计” ,在设计之前必须先充分理解建筑设计的内容,并收集相关的资料如建筑图集、结构计算手册及相关国标规范等,做好准备工作。

读懂建筑设计中的建筑图,如底层及标准层平面图、顶层平面图、主要立面图、剖面图,根据实际情况所选择的建筑方案,满足相关规范的要求考虑到实用、美观、符合教学目的等等各方面要求。

结构设计中根据承重框架布置方向的不同,框架的结构布置方案有横向框架承重、竖向框架承重、纵横向框架承重。多层框架是超静定结构,在计算内力之前,必须先确定杆件的截面形状、尺寸和惯性矩。为此,查阅了许多文献资料,包括标准、规范、手册、图集,以及国内外相关书籍、论文,明确了设计路线。

结构设计包括结构计算和绘制结构图两方面。结构计算又需完成基础设计、纵横向平面框架结构设计、楼盖设计、楼梯、阳台、雨蓬等结构设计,其中纵横向平面框架结构设计是最重要的,也是最难的。纵横向平面框架结构设计又涉及到框架梁、柱、节点设计,要满足“强柱弱梁,强剪弱弯,强节点弱构件”的设计原则。在本次毕业设计中采用手算和电算两种方法,手算采用分层分析法和D值法(计算竖向荷载采用分层分析法,计算水平荷载采用D值法)来完成,电算采用PKPM结构计算软件。最后,将手算与电算的结果比较,相互检验,以提高结构计算的精确度。

毕业设计是集理论与实践为一体,在设计之前作为设计者必须深入实际,调查研究,是大学四年里最重要的实践环节。通过一个完整的毕业设计,在资料查阅,文献综述与阅读,设计思路与方案的确定等方面有了较大的提高,对于相关设计规范、手册、标准图以及工程实践中常用的方法有较系统地认识了解。


学习英语作文2


第1篇:英语暑假趣事作文

下面由范文网的作者为你提供英语暑假趣事作文的写法。

On a sunny day, I made an appointment with some of my inseparable friends to visit our house.

Ill come up with a blackboard, a pen and a piece of magnet, then took out a pen to draw on the blackboard a person, he missed a nose, I said, \\\\\\\"who can close your eyes to the nose up even win.\\\\\\\" Friends are scrambling to grab food, like a gift from Santa Claus.

A friend grabbed, he closed his eyes according to the magnet up, other friends all laugh loudly, he opened his eyes looked, post the nose mouth, such not only has no nose, mouth and a mole. The other friends tried and failed, and I was myself.

Then I closed my eyes and put my nose up. My friend didnt smile. I opened my eyes and said, \\\\\\\"I did it!\\\\\\\"

Through the summer vacation, I learned that in life, you can only succeed if you are good at watching.

第2篇:英语暑假趣事作文

给你一篇英语暑假趣事作文的写作范例,你可以参考它的格式与写法,进行适当修改。

The summer vacation had come round again. i was happy that i could forget about school at least for a while. lest i fool around all through this summer vacation, i made a plan as to how to spend it. first, i thought i should go over all those things my teachers taught in the previous term so that i could have a better understanding of them. then i thought i should take up some forms of exercise, such as walking, running and rowing.

To keep me physically strong. it stood to reason that with such a good plan i should make the best of my vacation time. i did, because i lived up to what i had planned.

I enjoy summer vacation very much. Because summer vacation is the longest vacation of the year. We have more than fifty days to rest. Though it is very hot, we can either go to swim or stay in the air-conditioned room . In the evening, I like to go shopping with my friends. We can eat many things in summer, such as ice creams, watermelons, grapes,so on.In summer, I always go on a trip with my parents. Its a good chance for us to visit some nice interesting places.

范文网的小编希望你能喜欢以上2篇英语暑假趣事作文范文,你还可以点击这里查找更多英语暑假趣事作文范文。


学习英语作文3


小学英语作文技巧

英语写作是一种创作性的学习过程。启动知识信息储存,构思立意,谋篇布局,遣词造句,对语言表达的正确性和准确性、思维的逻辑性和文章的条理性都比口语要求更高。下面分享一下英语写作技巧:

1、 回忆法。审清题目的要求后,回忆一下与之相关的课文内容,再动笔。如:My family’s hobby 一词,要求写清楚你的家庭成员的爱好。首先出现在你的脑海里的你所背诵过的呢课文里的句子。具体内容尽量用上自己最熟悉的词来组织。如课文里的句子根据自己的实际情况改编。从而避免单词拼写的错误。

2、 朗读法。写完文章后,反复朗读自己所写的文章。这样会使你对作文有一个全新的感受。你会在写作时可能出现的错误,如句子不通顺,单词拼写错误等,然后改正。

3、 同伴批改法。学生可以找自己的同学互相交换作文批改。对照检查错误。这样,在帮助同学找出错误的过程中,自己也受益匪浅。

4、 记录错误法。准备一个小本子。每次老师把批改过的作文发回来时,仔细阅读老师指出的错误,把错误抄在本子上,并在旁边写上正确的形式。然后在每次写作文前,对

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照本子的错误,检查自己文中是否出现了相同或是类似的错误,以便及时改正。

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学习英语作文4


孩子的教育总是受到公众的关注,因为他们是未来,会影响一个国家的命运,因此,环境对他们来说很重要。下面给大家分享一些小学英语作文环境,希望对大家有帮助。

小学英语作文环境1

Children’s education has been concerned by the public all the time.As theyare the future and will decide a country’s destiny, so the environment mattersso much to them.Most parents expect the school can provide the children a goodlearning environment and ignore the importance of home education.

School provides the children a direct stage to receive education.In theschool, the teachers pass knowledge and educate them the right value.Thechildren know their task and as everybody around them focus the attention onstudy, so they are affected by each other and have the strong desire tolearn.

Home education is easy to be ignored by most parents, they think it is theteachers’ duty to educate children.Actually, most criminal teenagers havefamily issues.Parents haven’t set good example for the kids.Sometimes they areeven the trouble makers.Without love, teenagers won’t grow up as the strongpeople.

Both school and family environment are important for the children, and theyneed to be nurtured with the good examples and learn knowledge.

小学英语作文环境2

Recently, the problem of environmental pollution is getting more and moreserious.The air pollution, noise pollution and water pollution are found on thenewspaper everywhere.It is obvious that we should do something to protect ourearth.Because we have only one home.We should try our best not to pollute theenvironment and appeal the people around us make their effort to protect ourunique home.

小学英语作文环境3

The environment has been polluted badly today and the nature punishes thehuman being by all kinds of disasters, such as the heavy haze in Beijing, whichdamages people’s health.World Environment Day is on June 5th.It pays attentionto call for the public to make an effort to bring the world a cleanenvironment.

Look at the pollution around us, which exists everywhere.The cars releasethe gas which pollutes the air and the rubbish can be found in every corner ofthe street.All of these daily incidents hurts the world we live.Especially thefactories, they release the heavy smoke and make the sky becomes dark.What’smore, the wasted water flows to the clean river.

Though the government has made some action to punish the businessmen forreleasing the polluted sources, they still dare to take the risk of earning thebiggest profit.If we hurt the environment, it will hurt ourselves, because welive together.The polluted environment threatens our health.If we want to livethe comfortable life, then the only way is to be nice to the environment.

小学英语作文环境4

I love my school so much, because of the beautiful environment.The firstday I walk into the school, I am very impressed by the green trees and thecolorful flowers.It seems that I just walk into a park and get lost in thegreen world.The trees and flowers make me feel so comfortable, and my heartfeel the peace.

小学英语作文环境5

As we all know, pollution is harmful to living beings.There are manydifferent types of pollutions in this world.For instance, water pollution, airpollution, noise pollution and so on.Water pollution cause many kinds ofdisease that have negative effects on human beings, sometimes the diseases willtake people’s life away.Dirty air will increase the rate of getting lungcancer.While the noise pollution will cause insomnia.People’s health conditionwill be damaged.

In my humble opinion, people should take measures to control the pollution.Recently, not only the government, but also individual has taken part in theaction of protecting the environment.This is a good sign.Rivers are beingcleaned, air is purified, and the people come to realize that the importance ofprotecting the environment.

However, this is not enough, the problems are still exist.Not all of themhave been solved.Some factories are still pouring dirty water into the riversor give off the toxic gas into the sky.We should know that protecting theenvironment needs everybody’s effort.


学习英语作文5


梦想是鼓励人进步的精神动力。拿破仑曾说过,不想当将军的士兵不是好士兵。在成长的过程中,我们一定会遇到因为困难而放弃目标的情况,但是这时梦想就是我们坚持的动力。下面给大家分享一些梦想英语作文120词,希望对大家有帮助。

梦想英语作文120词1

I have a dream about my career.I want to be a teacher, because I thinkteacher is a good job.Generally speaking, teachers have much knowledge.Theycan help students to enrich their knowledge.Besides, teachers can communicatewith students all the time.It helps teachers keep young at heart.Finally,teachers have two long holidays a year.In the free time, I can do many things Ilike.And I have time to travel.It makes me exciting.I must work hard torealize my dream.

梦想英语作文120词2

I am studying in a middle school now, it is my second year.If you ask mewhat my occupation is, I will answer you that my occupation is student.I havestudied for many years, many students don’t like being a student, but I am notof them, I enjoy being a student.For me, I don’t have to worry about the moneyissue, I can go to play with my friends, the most important thing is, I likereading all kinds of books.I especially like to read the books about travel.Ihave a dream, when I earn enough money, I must travel around the world.So Imust work hard to realize my dream.

梦想英语作文120词3

I have a dream.Compared toMartin Luther King’s, my dream is very small.Iwant to be a teacher in the future.And then I can have a two long vacations fortraveling.I can travel around the world.I can go America, Canada, New York,New Zealand, Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and so on.It’s perfect.Yes, goingtravel around the world is my dream.Even I want to go to the moon fortravel.

梦想英语作文120词4

As a small girl, many teachers have asked me what do I want to be in thefuture.My answer is always to be a teacher.It is my dream and I study so hardto realize it.Being a teacher can pass the knowledge to others and guide themto the right way.Thinking about the great contribution I would make, everythingis worthy.

梦想英语作文120词5

When I was very small, I had always heard many stories from my uncle,because he traveled a lot.So I have made up my mind.When I grew up, I musttravel around the world, which is my biggest dream.In order to realize mydream, the first thing for me to do is to master English well, so I spend manyhours to learn.I can realize my dream some day.


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